Initially, I came to the conclusion of Lactarius fallax, through its morphology. The cap of my mushroom was convex in shape and depressed, with a distinct pointed umbo. It was also quite velvety, dry, and wrinkled. The diameters of the caps were 5.8cm, 4.7cm, and 3.5cm respectively. The colour, when it was fresh was a chocolate brown, and the stem was a lighter brown and was darker in certain places. It also was dry. When dried it became a dark grey. The margins along the cap were scalloped. The stem was hollow, quite brittle and chalk-like and measured 10 cm, 8.5 cm, and 8.0cm respectively amongst all three and was eccentric in shape. The flesh of my mushroom was white and bruised easily, turning brown. However, there was no milky latex when cut. There was also no universal veil or annulus present. The gills are decurrant and subdistant to close in spacing. While they were white, the edges were dark and similar in colour to the cap. I could not distinguish a taste or scent. Under the dissecting microscope, the spores were lightly yellow. Under a compound microscope, I saw that they were round in shape, with ridges and warts. They were both averagely 12.5 microns in width and length. The spores also stained blue (amyloid) with Melzerâ€™s Reagent. I was not successful in obtaining a spore print; however I was able to scrape some spores from my gills, along with some tissue onto three glass slides. The slides are labelled and in room 3008. I also was able to distinguish that some sterile cystidia were present amongst the basidia, within the hymenial layer of the gills. There were also four sterigmata on each basidium, which gave rise to the basidiaspores. These are all characteristics (except for no milky latex) that are associated with L. fallax. I also went to the herbarium to compare their specimens with my own. They had many L. fallax samples. Morphologically, there were very similar to mine. Since they were dehydrated, they also were a dark grey, with a slightly wrinkled surface and depressed with an umbo. The gills also were subdistant to close, and the same color as the cap along their edges. The stems were similar in height (3 â€“ 8cm) and width (0.5 â€“ 2cm). The caps were also similar in diameter (3 â€“ 11cm) and all were scalloped along the margins. I also managed to scrape some of the spores onto a slide looked at them under a compound microscope; they were round, with ridges and warts â€“ just like mine. Most of the samples were also collected in and around the Vancouver area. My DNA sequence, when shown on a color chromatogram, showed clear nucleotide peaks, especially between bases 60 and 620. There, the computer was able to clearly distinguish the nucleotide bonds, with little baseline noise. The most similar DNA sequence to mine that was given through BLAST, was Lactarius fallax, with 98% similarity. The query coverage was 100% , max score was 1698 (score of the longest matching sequence) and the total score was 1698 (sum of all the sequences that match). Other mushrooms that also appeared through the BLAST search were L. pterosporus and L. Lignyotus. Using the distance tree results, L. lignyotus appeared to be the closest related species, being separated by 6 nodes, showing that they share a similar ancestor, but have become genetically distinct overtime. The L. fallax, found through the BLAST search was submitted by another student in Bio 323 from a previous year. He also obtained his sample from Capilano Regional Park.